POZZOLANIC CEMENT IN QASEEM FACTORIES
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Concrete is one of the most important and basic component of our civilization buildings that will continue to be in demand in the next years.
We cannot imagine the world without concrete, Production of cement is predicted to reach 5 billion metric tons by 2030, a 43% increase from current consumption.
For each eight-minute cement factories dump another 30,000 tons of carbon into the atmosphere. That means we should drop our eyes to a real problem that can destroy the universe (Ivan, 2013)
The production of 1 tons of cement will produce 1.2-1.4 ton of Co2 emission. There are 17 cement factories producing 55-60 million tons of cement / year (with total emission of 70-120* million tons of Co2. (Recent report in Eleqtesadea Saudi newspaper few cement factories in Saudi Arabia are consuming 3,.3 times the energy consumption in any cement factory in the world, thus producing a large amounts of Co2 emission.
People who work in manufacturing cement are the most to affect environment negatively. Those factories launch massive amounts of Carbon, hydrogen, dust Carbon, uranium-bearing dust, dioxide and smoke (SHARMA, 2009). Cement factories will affect negatively on our environment, air, water, our health, Humans, animals and agriculture.
The world thinking about sustainability and how to protect the world for population. The push for sustainable construction is gaining momentum at an astounding rate. As we mentioned before Concrete becomes more a part of everyday construction demand, we must start think of how we to follow sustainability in Industry cement. Pozzolanic cement fits well into our world. It is an international flexible material for design, also well-suited for the aesthetics and engineering demands of construction worldwide
Based on the Dr. Mohammed Alhaj Hussein’s PhD book in UK ( Dr Alhaj Hussein 2010), the results of 7 year research in UK, showed that green concrete – containing either 30% Pozzolan or 70% Slag – had the best overall quality, durability and better performance than Portland cement concrete. This book will help professionals in Corrosion Control, Green Building and Sustainable Development.
The summery of Dr Mohammed Alhaj Hussein`s PhD was published in ( Environment and science magazine, summer 2005) ( Using of local pozzolan in green concrete will help in reducing pollution, protecting environment and help in achieving sustainable development in Saudi Arabia and the world ) (Dr Alhaj Hussein 2005)
Pozzolanic cement is the first Green cement that has been used in many roman countries under Roman Empire since 79 A.D. Romans had mixed 1/3 lime with 2/3 of volcanic ash powder and light lava rock and water to make material solid and cohesive building used in the construction of buildings, bridges, waterway and temples and most of these roman structures are still standing.
The secret of roman concrete mix was hidden for more than 2000 years until the last century in USA, where pozzolanic cement was commercialized for the first time in the green structures in the western states of US. Roman cement / Green cement is a more efficient and environmentally-friendly production that focuses on reducing the CO2 emissions resulting from the cement plants during heating and calcination of lime and clay. Moreover, replacing local pozzolan with 30 of portland cement at cement plant will help in reducing the amount of energy consumed during the cement production. The process of “making green cement” is replacing 30-70% of cement by pozzolan or slag (Dr Alhaj Hussein 2010). There are different cement factories in in the world that produce different types of green cement, each type provides different alternatives and methods that all lead in one way or another to the main purpose which is reducing CO2. In green cement manufacturing alternatives for the clinker is used which does not require any amount of heat and as a result reducing the emissions of CO2. One of the alternatives used is Natural “pozzolan “, ASTM C 618 – type N- 2016. Natural pozzolan comes from volcanic ash powder and can be used as a substitute for 30% of the clinker, to make green cement of pozzolanic cement (ASTM C 595-2016).
In Saudi Arabia, locally available natural pozzolanic material can be utilized for economic and environmental benefits as a partial cement replacement. Pozzolans also improve the properties of green concrete in both short and long terms.
Using up to 30% Saudi natural pozzolan in green concrete can save approximately 30% of cement, reduce 30% of carbon emission, and reduce 30% of energy and fossil fuel consumption in Saudi cement plants all over the country. This will greatly help implementing Paris Agreement for climate change. Using local pozzolans can boost green economy and sustainable development in Transition 2020 and Saudi vision 2030. ( Dr Alhaj Hussein 2017)
The influence of pozzolanic oxides obtained from different sources and colors of natural pozzolans were investigated (using the X-ray diffraction analysis). It was observed that, regardless of the source, the chemical and physical properties of local natural pozzolan are similar and conform to the requirements of ASTM C 618, Class N standards.
There are many different projects based in KSA used local green cement in their construction like: The new extension of Jeddah sea port, East Jeddah hospital, Makkah Chamber of trade, new Holiday Inn hotel Makkah and few green buildings in Jeddah that where been designed and supervised by Dr Mohammed Alhaj Hussein CEO of Green Quality consulting office. ( Dr Alhaj Hussein 2017)
In our project, we focused in one of the green cement types which is local pozzolanic cement that been produced in 5-6 cement plants out of 17 cement plants.
As it is produced in alqaseem cement factory which is It is located near alqaseem city, which our proposed green project located there the natural pozzolan that been used in the pozzolanic cement in Alqaseem are located less 800 Km form Alqaseem area. (Green building code require the using of 30-40% of local pozzolan in green concrete and green building projects).
. Pozzolanic cement (PPC) is the international product name;
According to Saudi standards SASO 2005/2536. Saudi Pozzolanic cement are similar to European Standard (CEM II/ A – P) and ASTM C 595-2016 .
The using of Pozzolanic cement can improve the physical and chemical properties of green concrete in the short term and long term.
It can have used in all types of regular and reinforced concrete applications. Some usages are: Ready Mix Concrete, Building Structures (Beams, Columns and Foundations etc.), Molding and casting, Tiles Manufacturing and Fixing, Bricks manufacturing, Masonry, Plastering and all type of finishing jobs.
The Content of pozzolanic cement are:
75-80% Opc Cement
With 20-25% pozzolan powder
It is transported by special tanks for transporting cement, as well as in 50 kg bags.
After we studied the cost of Pozzolanic cement in different factories in KSA, the
Alqaseem Pozzolanic / green cement is the cheapest cement in Saudi Arabia.
Portland Cement Cost
12 Riyals per bag( 50KG)
240 Riyals per ton
Portland resistance Cement
13 Riyals per bag ( 50KG)
260 Riyals per ton
Pozzolanic cement Cost
8 Riyals per bag ( 50KG)
160 Riyals per ton
To conclude the price of pozzolanic in qaseeem cement will be less than 30-40% of the Ordinary cement
- (Dr Mohammed Alhaj Hussein, Corrosion Behavior and Durability of Various Cements and Pozzolans, Published by LAP Lambert Academic Publishing (2010), ISBN 10: 3838338359 ISBN 13: 9783838338354.
- The summery of Dr Mohammed Alhaj Hussein`s PhD was given to ” Prince Turki bin Nasser bin Abdul-Aziz – General President of the General Presidency of Meteorology and Environment Protection”, and published in the ( Environment and science magazine summer 2005)
- ( Dr Alhaj Hussein 2017), The Engineer Magazine, The Saudi council of Engineers, March 2017) Using local pozzolans can boost green economy an
- d sustainable development in Transition 2020 and Saudi vision 2030).